AMA Journal of Ethics®

Illuminating the art of medicine

Journal of Ethics Header

AMA Journal of Ethics®

Illuminating the art of medicine

Virtual Mentor. June 2003, Volume 5, Number 6.

Suggested Reading and Resources

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Resources on Caring for a Culturally Diverse Patient Population

Further Reading

  • Aaron KF, Clancy CM. Improving quality and reducing disparities: toward a common pathway. JAMA. 2003;289:1033-1034.
  • Accreditation Committee for Graduate Medical Education. Core competencies available at: http://www.acgme.org/outcome/comp/compFull.asp .
  • AMA Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the US, 2001-2002. Available at: http://www.amednews.com/2001/prsa0903 .
  • American Medical Association Foundation and American Medical Association. Health Literacy: A Manual for Clinicians. Chicago: AMA Foundation and AMA; 2003.
  • Amici Curiae Brief of the Association of American Medical Colleges, the American Medical Association, and the Texas Medical Association in Hopwood v State of Texas. November 1999.
  • Ashton CM, Haidet P, Paterniti DA, Collins TC, Gordon HS, O'Malley KJ, et al. Racial and ethnic disparities in the use of health services: Bias, preferences, or poor communication? J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18:146-52.
  • Ashton CM, Haidet P, Paterniti DA, et al. Racial and ethnic disparities in the use of health services: bias, preferences or poor communication? J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18:146-152.
  • Ashton CM, Haidet P, Paterniti DA, et al. Racial and ethnic disparities in the use of health services: bias, preferences or poor communication? J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18:146-152.
  • Ayanian JZ, Udvarhelyi IS, Gatsonis CA, Pashos CL, Epstein AM. Racial differences in the use of revascularization procedures after coronary angiography. JAMA. 1993;269:2642-2646.
  • Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, Clark WS, Nurss J. The relationship of patient reading ability to self-reported health and use of health services. Am J Public Health. 1997;87:1027-1030.
  • Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, Pitkin K, Parikh NS, Coates W, et al. The healthcare experience of patients with low literacy.Arch Fam Med 1996;5:329-334.
  • Barlett EE, Grayson M, Barker R, Levine DM, Golden A, Libber S. The effects of physician communication skills on patient satisfaction, recall, and adherence. J Chronic Dis. 1984;37:755-64.
  • Blendon RJ, Aiken LH, Freeman HE, Corey CR. Access to medical care for black and white Americans: a matter of continuing concern. JAMA. 1989:261:278-80.
  • Brian D, Smedley AYS, Nelson AR, eds. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine; 2002.
  • Burchard EG, Ziv E, Coyle N, et al. The importance of race and ethnic background in biomedical research and clinical practice.N Engl J Med. 2003;348:1170-1175.
  • Burroughs VM, Maxey RW, Levy RA. Racial and ethnic differences in response to medicines: towards individualized pharmaceutical treatment. J Nat Med Assoc. 2002;94 (SUPP):1-26.
  • Cohen JJ. The consequences of premature abandonment of affirmative action in medical schools admissions. JAMA. 2003;289:1143-1149.
  • Cooper RS, Kaufman JS, Ward R. Race and genomics.N Engl J Med. 2003;348:1166-1170.
  • Cooper-Patrick L, Gallo JJ, Gonzales JJ, et al. Race, gender, and partnership in the patient-physician relationship. JAMA. 1999;282:583-89.
  • Diala CC, Muntaner C, Walrath C, Nickerson K, LaViest T, Leaf P. Racial/ethnic differences in attitudes toward seeking professional mental health services. Am J Pub Health. 2001;91:805-7.
  • Doescher MP, Saver BG, Franks P, Fiscella K. Racial and ethnic disparities in perceptions of physician style and trust. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9:1156-63.
  • Fact Sheet: Health Literacy and Understanding Medical Information. Lawrenceville, NJ: Center for Health Care Strategies; 2002.
  • Gornick ME, Eggers PW, Reilly TW, et al. Effects of race and income on mortality and use of services among Medicare beneficiaries. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:791-799.
  • Grutter v Bollinger. 123 S Ct 1777. Brief for the Petitioner. Available at: http://www.cir-usa.org/legal_docs/grutter_v_bollinger_SupCt_brief.pdf. Accessed May 31, 2003.
  • Grutter v Bollinger. 123 S Ct 1777. Brief for the Respondents. Available at: http://www.umich.edu/%7Eurel/admissions/legal/grutter/UM-Grutter.pdf . Accessed May 31, 2003.
  • Health Literacy: A Handbook for Clinicians. Chicago: AMA Foundation and AMA;2003.
  • Hobbs F, Stoops N. Demographic trends in the 20th century. US Census Bureau Division. November 2002. Accessed May 9, 2003.
  • Kaplan SH, Gandek B, Greenfield S, Rogers W, Ware JE. Patient and visit characteristics related to physician's participatory decision-making styles. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124:497-504.
  • Katz JN. Patient Preferences and Health Disparities. JAMA. 2001;286:1506-1509.
  • Kleinman AM, Eisenberg L, Good B. Culture, illness, and care. Clinical lessons from anthropological and cross-cultural research. Ann Intern Med. 1978;88:251-8.
  • Kruglanski AW, Freund T. The freezing and unfreezing of lay inferences: effects of impressional primacy, ethnic stereotyping, and numerical anchoring. J Exp Soc Psychol. 1991;27:618-26.
  • Laveist TA, Carroll T. Race of physician and satisfaction with care among African American patients. Journal of the National Medical Association. 2002;94:937-43.
  • Laveist TA, Nuru-Jeter A. Is doctor-patient race concordance associated with greater satisfaction with care? Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 2002;43:296-306.
  • Lavizzo-Mourey R, Mackenzie E. Cultural competence; essential measurements of quality for managed care organizations. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124:919-921
  • Little P. Genetic Destinies. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2002:91.
  • Miller B, Campbell RT, Furner S, et al. Use of medical care by African American and white older persons: comparative analysis of three national data sets. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 1997;52:S325-S335.
  • Minow M. Making All the Difference: Inclusion, Exclusion, and the American Law. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press; 1990.
  • Moy B, Bartman BA. Physician race and care of minority and medically indigent patients. JAMA. 1995;273:1515-20.
  • Oddone EZ, Horner RD, Lipscomb J, et al. Understanding racial variation in the use of cartoid endarterectomy: the role of aversion to surgery. J Natl Med Assoc. 1998;9025-33.
  • Orth JE, Stiles WB, Scherwitz L, Hennrikus D, Valibona C. Patient exposition and provider explanation in routine interviews and hypertensive patients' blood pressure control. Health Psychol. 1987;277:553-9.
  • Saha S, Taggart SH, Komaromy M, Bindman AB. Do patients choose physicians of their own race? Health Affairs. 2000;19:76-83.
  • Schneider EC, Zaslavsky AM, Epstein AM. Racial disparities in the quality of care for enrollees in Medicare managed care. JAMA. 2002;287:1288-1294.
  • Schulman KA, Berlin JA, Harless W, et al. The effect of race and sex on physicians' referrals for cardiac catheterization. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:279-83.
  • Shepardson LB, Gordon HS, Ibrahim S, Harper DL, Rosenthal GE. Racial variation in the use of do-not-resuscitate orders. J Gen Intern Med. 1999;14:15-20.
  • Street RL, Voigt B, Geyer C, Manning T, Swanson GP. Increasing patient involvement in choosing treatment for early breast cancer.Cancer. 1995;76:976-988.
  • Street RL. Information-giving in medical consultations: the influence of patients' communication styles and personal characteristics.Soc Sci Med. 1991;32:541-548.
  • The Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation. Race, Ethnicity & Family Care: A Survey of Public Perceptions and Experiences. Menlo Park, Calif: Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation; 1999.
  • Tran AN, Haidet P, Street R, O'Malley KJ, Martin F, Ashton C. Empowering communication: A community-based intervention for patients. Patient Education and Counseling. 2002. In Press.
  • Tran AN, Haidet P, Street R, O'Malley KJ, Martin F, Ashton CM. Empowering communication: A community-based intervention for patients. Poster presentation at the Houston Center for Quality of Care and Utilization Studies, July 8-9 2002, Houston, Texas.
  • US Census Bureau Division. Projections of resident population by age, sex, race, and hispanic origin: 1999-2100.
  • Van Ryn M. Research on the provider contribution to race/ethnicity disparities in medical care. Med Care. 2002:40 (suppl):140-51.
  • Van Ryn M, Burke J. The effect of patient race and socio-economic status on physicians' perceptions of patients. Soc Sci Med. 2000;50:813-828.
  • Weiss BD, Hart G, McGee D, D'Estelle S. Health status of illiterate adults: relation between literacy and health status among persons with low literacy skills Am Board Fam Pract. 1992;5:257-264.
  • Williams MV, Baker DW, Honig EG, Lee TM, Nowlan A. Inadequate literacy is a barrier to asthma knowledge and self-care. Chest. 1998;114:1008-1015.
  • Williams MV, Baker DW, Parker RM, Nurss JR. Relationship of functional health literacy to patients' knowledge of their chronic disease: a study of patients with hypertension or diabetes. Arch Int Med. 1998; 158:166-172.
  • Williams MV, Parker RM, Baker DW, Parikh NS, Pitkin K, Coates WC, et al. Inadequate functional health literacy among patients at two public hospitals. JAMA. 1995;274:1677-1682.
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