AMA Journal of Ethics®

Illuminating the art of medicine

Journal of Ethics Header

AMA Journal of Ethics®

Illuminating the art of medicine

Virtual Mentor. April 2004, Volume 6, Number 4.

Suggested Reading and Resources

  • Print

Resources on Medicine and the Social Contract

Further Reading

  • American Academy of Family Physicians. Volunteering and caring for the uninsured. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/x14230.xml. Accessed February 1, 2004.
  • American College of Physicians. Volunteerism subcommittee. Volunteering as a physician: opportunities and resources. Accessed February 1, 2004.
  • American Medical Association. AMA Medical Student Section. Community service committee page. Accessed February 1, 2004.
  • Opinion 6.10 Services Provided by Multiple Physicians. Code of Medical Ethics 2008-2009 Edition. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; 2008:184.
  • American Medical Association. Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Ethical issues in managed care. JAMA. 1995;273:330-335.
  • Baker RB. The American medical ethics revolution. In Baker RB, Caplan AL, Emanuel L, Latham SL, eds. The American Medical Ethics Revolution: How the AMA Code of Ethics Has Transformed Physicians' Relationships to Patients, Professionals, and Society. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 1999:17-51.
  • Barondess JA. Medicine and professionalism. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:145-149.
  • Bender W, Torres M, Pittner J, Keller K. Nocturnal home hemodialysis (NHHD) results in dietary, medication, and laboratory changes. Perit Dial Int. 2000;20:(1) S101.
  • Berkman L, Kawachi I, eds. Social Epidemiology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Bloche MG. Clinical loyalties and the social purposes of medicine. JAMA. 1999; 281:268-274.
  • Boccasile v Cajun Music Limited, 694 A2d 686 (S Ct R.I., 1997).
  • Brody H, Bonham VL Jr. Gag rules and trade secrets in managed care contracts: ethical and legal concerns. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:2037-43.
  • Brown SM. Good Samaritan law: protections and limits; legally speaking. RN. 1999;62:65.
  • Chan CT, Floras JS, Miller JA, Pierratos A. Improvement in left ventricular systolic function with longterm nocturnal hemodialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12:262A.
  • Chan CT, Floras JS, Miller JA, Pierratos A. Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy after conversion to nocturnal hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 2002;61:2235-2239.
  • Chan CT, Harvey PT, Picton P, et al. Short-term blood pressure, noradrenergic, and vascular effects of nocturnal home hemodialysis. Hypertension. 2003;42:925-31.
  • Chan CT, Miller J, Floras J, Pierratos A. Improvement in ejection fraction by nocturnal hemodialysis in end-stage renal failure patients with coexisting heart failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002;17:1518-1521.
  • Cruess RL, Cruess SR. Teaching medicine as a profession in the service of healing. Acad Med. 1997;72:941-952.
  • Cruess SR, Cruess RL. Professionalism: a contract between medicine and society. CMAJ. 2000;162:668-669.
  • Darves B. NEJM Career Center for Physicians. Volunteer work brings both personal and professional rewards. Accessed February 1, 2004.
  • Dr. John Snow information. Accessed Feb 27, 2004.
  • Emanuel EJ, Emanuel LL. What is accountability in health care? Ann Intern Med. 1996;124:229-239.
  • Farmer, P. Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press; 2003.
  • Fershtman, J. Understanding negligence. Accessed Mar 18, 2004.
  • Freidson E. Professional dominance: the social structure of medical care. Chicago: Aldine; 1970.
  • Friedman AN, Bostom AG, Selhub J, Levey AS, Rosenberg IH, Pierratos A. Nocturnal versus standard hemodialysis and plasma total homocystein levels. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12:356A.
  • Friedman EA. Physicians share experiences on the Medicare ESRD program. American Association of Kidney Patients. Accessed Feb 23, 2004.
  • Geiger HJ. Racial and ethnic disparities in diagnosis and treatment: a review of the evidence and a consideration of causes. In: Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine; 2002.
  • Good Samaritan Statute. Accessed Mar 18, 2004.
  • Gruen RL, Pearson SD, Brennan TA. Physician-citizens—public roles and professional obligations. JAMA. 2004;291:94-98.
  • Hanly PJ, Pierratos A. Improvement of sleep apnea in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo nocturnal hemodialysis. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:102-107.
  • Hoy C, Goldstein L, Meola S. Daily nocturnal hemodialysis. Perit Dial Int. 2000;20:S104.
  • Hoy CD. Remote monitoring of daily nocturnal hemodialysis. Hemodialysis International. 2001;5:8-12.
  • Informed Consent. Ethics in Medicine. Accessed January 15, 2004.
  • Institute of Medicine. Insuring America's health: principles and recommendations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2004. Accessed: March 10, 2004.
  • Kidder, T. Mountains Beyond Mountains. Healing the World: The Quest of Dr. Paul Farmer. New York: Random House; 2003.
  • Kjellstrand CM, Evans RL, Petersen RJ, Shideman JR, von Hartitzsch B, Buselmeier TJ. The "unphysiology" of dialysis: a major cause of dialysis side effects? Kidney Int Suppl. 1975;7:S30-S34.
  • Klarenbach SW, Heidenheim AP, Leitch R, Lindsay RM. Reduced requirement for erythropoietin with quotidian hemodialysis therapy. ASAIO J. 2002:48;57-61.
  • Kooistra M, Vos J, Koomans H, Vos P. Daily home hemodialysis in the Netherlands: effects on metabolic control, hemodynamics, and quality of life. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13:2853-2860.
  • Kooistra M, Vos P. Daily home hemodialysis: towards a more physiological treatment of patients with ESRD. Semin Dial. 1999;12:424-430.
  • Krause E. Death of the Guilds: Professions, States and the Advance of Capitalism, 1930 to the Present. New Haven: Yale University Press; 1996.
  • Krieger N. Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: an ecosocial perspective. Int J Epidemiol. 2001;30:668-677.
  • Landon BE, Reschovsky J, Blumenthal D. Changes in career satisfaction among primary care and specialist physicians, 1977-2001. JAMA. 2003;289:442-449.
  • Leavitt JW. The Healthiest City: Milwaukee and the Politics of Health Reform. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1982.
  • Levitan M. A crisis in black male employment. Unemployment and joblessness in New York City, 2003. Community Service Society. Available at www.cssny.org. Accessed March 1, 2004.
  • Lockridge R, Anderson H, Coffey L, et al. Nightly home hemodialysis in Lynchburg, Virginia: economic and logistic considerations. Semin Dial. 1999;12:440-447.
  • Lockridge R. Parathyroid disease and calcium-phosphorus product controlled with nightly home hemodialysis (NHHD). Perit Dial Int. 2000;20:S104.
  • Magellos H, Silva A, Whitman S. Comparison of health status indicators in Chicago: Are black-white disparities worsening? Amer J Publ Health. January, 2004 (94):116-121.
  • McFarlane PA, Pierratos A, Redelmeier DA. Cost savings of home nocturnal versus conventional in-center hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 2002;62:2216-22.
  • McPhatter L, Lockridge R, Albert J, et al. Nightly home hemodialysis: improvement in nutrition and quality of life. Adv Renal Replace Ther. 1999;6:358-365.
  • Mechanic D. Changing medical organization and the erosion of trust. Milbank Q. 1996;74:171-189.
  • Mohr P, Neumann P, Franco S, Marainen J, Lockridge R, Ting G. The quality of life and economic implications of daily dialysis. Policy Anal Brief H Ser. 1999;1:1-4.
  • Mohr P, Neumann P, Franco S, Marainen J, Lockridge R, Ting G. The case for daily dialysis: its impact on costs and quality of life. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;37;777-89.
  • Mohr P, Neumann P, Lockridge R, Ting G. The economic implications of daily hemodialysis. Perit Dial Int. 2000;20:S105.
  • Mucsi I, Hercz G, Uldall R, Ouwendyk M, Francoeur R, Pierratos A. Control of serum phosphate without any phosphate binders in patients treated with nocturnal hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 1998;53:1399-1404.
  • National Center for Research Resources. Comparison of daily nocturnal hemodialysis with daily hemodialysis. Sponsored by National Center for Research Resources. Accessed February 13, 2004.
  • O'Sullivan D, McCarthy J, Kumar R, Williams A. Improved biochemical variables, nutrient intake, and hormonal factors in slow nocturnal hemodialysis: a pilot study. Mayo Clin Proc. 1998;73:1035-1045.
  • Oleskey C, Fleischman A, Goldman LR, et al. Pesticide testing in humans: ethics and public policy. Environ Health Perspect. 2004.
  • Pellegrino ED, Relman A. Professional medical associations: ethical and practical guidelines. JAMA. 1999;282:1954-1956.
  • Physician's Working Group for Single-Payer National Health Insurance. Proposal of the physician's working group for single-payer national health insurance. JAMA. 2003:290(6):798-805.
  • Physicians for a National Health Program. Available at: http://www.pnhp.org/. Accessed February 11, 2004.
  • Pierratos A, Heslegrave RJ, Thornley K, et al. Nocturnal hemodialysis improves daytime cognitive function. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998;9:180A.
  • Pierratos A, Ouwendyk M, Francoeur R, et al. Nocturnal hemodialysis: three year experience. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998;9:859-868.
  • Pierratos A, Thornley K, Ouwendyk M, Francoeur R, Hanly P. Nocturnal hemodialysis improves sleep quality in patients with chronic renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1997;8:169A.
  • Pierratos A. Nocturnal home haemodialysis: an update on a 5-year experience. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1999;14:2835-2840.
  • Raj D, Ouwendyk M, Francoeur R, Pierratos A. Beta-2-Microglobulin kinetics in nocturnal haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2000;15:58-64.
  • Rettig R. The social contract and the treatment of permanent kidney failure. JAMA. 1996;275:1123.
  • Schlesinger M. A loss of faith: the sources of reduced political legitimacy for the American medical profession. Milbank Q. 2002;80:185-235.
  • Scott J. Nearly half of Black men in city are jobless, study finds. New York Times. Saturday, February 28, 2004.
  • Sibbald B, Bojke C, Gravelle H. National survey of job satisfaction and retirement intentions among general practitioners in England. BMJ. 2003;326:22-24.
  • Singer, NJ. Sutherland Statutory Construction § 61.01, at 77 (4th ed. 1986) quoting Shaw v Railroad Co., 101 U.S. 557, 565, 25 L. Ed. 892, 894, 8 Week. Notes Cas. 221 (1880).
  • Starr P. The Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books; 1984.
  • Sullivan W. Work and Integrity: The Crisis And Promise Of Professionalism In North America. New York: Harper Collins; 1995.
  • Susser M. Should the epidemiologist be a social scientist or a molecular biologist? Int J Epidemiol. 1999; 28:1019-1022.
  • Szabo T, Ouwendyk M, Pierratos A. Resolution of soft tissue calcification and improvement of bone density on nocturnal hemodialysis: a case report. Perit Dial Int. 2000;20:S109.
  • Tammelleo AD, Can "volunteers" invoke the Good Samaritan rule; Boccasile v Cajun Music Limited, 694 A2d 686–RI 1997. Regan Report on Nursing Law. 1997;38(4);2.
  • Ubel PA, Arnold RM. The unbearable rightness of bedside rationing: physician duties in a climate of cost containment. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:1837-42.
  • Ubel PM. Pricing Life: Why It's Time For Health Care Rationing. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press; 2000.
  • US Census Bureau. Health insurance coverage in the United States: 2002. Current population survey. September 2003:1. Accessed February 1, 2004.
  • US Renal Data System, USRDS 2003 Annual Data Report: Atlas of End-Stage Renal Disease in the United States. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2003. Available at: http://www.usrds.org/atlas.htm. Accessed Feb. 24, 2004.
  • Values, Ethics & Rationing In Critical Care (VERICC) Task Force. What is health care rationing? VERICC Web site. Accessed January 17, 2004.
  • Velasquez v Jiminez, 172 N.J. 240 (2002).
  • Vos P. Quotidian dialysis: intradialytic and interdialytic symptoms. Presented at: The International Dialysis Conference; March 5, 2002; Tampa, Fla.
  • Walzer M. Spheres of Justice: A Defense of Pluralism and Equality. New York: Basic Books; 1983:81.
  • Williams A, O'Sullivan D, Kumar R, McCarthy J. Improved solute clearance and PCR on slow nocturnal hemodialysis (SNHD). Perit Dial Int. 1998;18 Suppl 1:S-78.
  • Wynia MK, Latham SR, Kao AC, Berg JW, Emanuel LL. Medical professionalism in society. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:1612-1616.
The viewpoints expressed on this site are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the AMA.