AMA Journal of Ethics®

Illuminating the art of medicine

Journal of Ethics Header

AMA Journal of Ethics®

Illuminating the art of medicine

Virtual Mentor. July 2004, Volume 6, Number 7.

Suggested Reading and Resources

  • Print

Resources on Medicine in Sports and Fitness

Further Reading

  • Allen DB, Fost NC, eds. Ethical issues in growth hormone therapy: where are we now? Proceedings from a conference. Endocrinologist. 2001;11(suppl 1):1-86.
  • Allen DB, Fost NC. Access to treatment with human growth hormone: proceedings of a conference. Growth, Genetics, Hormones. 1992; 8(Supp):1-76.
  • American College of Sports Medicine. Code of Ethics. Available at: http://www.acsm.org/membership/code_of_ethics.htm. Accessed June 8, 2004.
  • American College of Sports Medicine. Position stand. The female athlete triad. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29:i-ix.
  • American Medical Association. Code of Medical Ethics. Opinion 3.06 Sports medicine. Available at: http://www.ama-assn.org/
    apps/pf_new/pf_online?f_n=browse&doc=policyfiles/HnE/E-
    3.06.HTM&&s_t=&st_p=&nth=1&prev_pol=policyfiles/HnE/E-
    2.30.HTM&nxt_pol=policyfiles/HnE/E-3.01.HTM&. Accessed June 4, 2004.
  • American Medical Association. Policy H470.978. Blood Doping. CEJA Rep B, I-85; Reaffirmed CLRPD Rep. 2, I-95). Available at http://www.ama-assn.org/
    apps/pf_new/pf_online?f_n=resultLink&doc=policyfiles/HnE/H-
    470.978.HTM&s_t=blood+doping&catg=AMA/HnE&&nth=1&&st_p=0&nth=1&
    Accessed June 4, 2004.
  • Bernstein J, Perlis C, Bartolozzi AR. Ethics in sports medicine. Clin Orthop. September 2000;378:50-60.
  • Bernstein J, Perlis C, Bartolozzi AR. Normative ethics in sports medicine. Clin Orthop. 2004;420:309-318.
  • Catlin D, Murray TH. Performance-enhancing drugs, fair competition, and Olympic Sport. JAMA. 1996;276(3):231-7.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence of no leisure-time physical activity—35 states and the District of Columbia, 1988-2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004;53:82-86.
  • Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness. American Academy of Pediatrics. Intensive training and sports specialization in young athletes. Pediatrics. 2000;106:154-157.
  • DuRant RH, Rickert VI, Ashworth CS, Newman C, Slavens G. Use of multiple drugs among adolescents who use anabolic steroids. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:922-926.
  • Evans NA. Gym and tonic: a profile of 100 male steroid users. Br J Sports Med. 1997;31:54-58.
  • Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2000. JAMA. 2002;288:1723-1727.
  • Fost N. Steroids are only fair. Newsday. Feb 29, 2004; A56.
  • Fost NC. Banning drugs in sports: a skeptical view. Hastings Center Report. 1986;16: 5-10.
  • Franke WW, Berendonk B. Hormonal doping and androgenization of athletes: a secret program of the German Democratic Republic. Clinical Chemistry. 1997; 43:1262-79.
  • Governor's Council for Health, Fitness and Sports. Eyes Forward, Heads Up. Football Injuries. Lansing, Mich: Governor's Council for Health, Fitness and Sports; 2003.
  • Grunbaum JA, Kann L, Kinchen S, et al. Youth risk behavior surveillance-United States, 2003. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 2004;53:1-96.
  • Hansen G. UA coach hopes Olympic disgrace can be rectified. Available at: http://www.azstarnet.com/sydney2000/DeMont3.shtml. Accessed Jun 18, 2004.
  • Hoberman J. Sports physicians and the doping crisis in elite sport. Clin J Sport Med. 2002;12:203-8.
  • Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Protein and Amino Acids (Macronutrients): A Report of the Panel on Macronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2002. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309085373/html/R1.html#pagetop Accessed June 29, 2004.
  • Jakicic JM, Clark K, Coleman E, et al. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:2145-2156.
  • Janda DH. The Awakening of a Surgeon. Ann Arbor, Mich: The Institute for Preventative Sports Medicine; 2004.
  • Janda DH. for The Institute for Preventative Sports Medicine. The prevention of baseball and softball injuries. Clin Orthop. 2003; 409:20-28.
  • Janda DH, Bir CA. An evaluation of the concussive effect of soccer heading in the youth population. Inj Control Saf Promot. 2002; 9:25-31.
  • Janda DH, Hankin FM, Wojtys EM. A prospective study: base sliding injuries—stationary vs. break-away bases. JAMA. 1988; 259:1848-1850.
  • Janda DH, Hankin FM, Wojtys EM. Softball injuries: cost, cause, and prevention. Am Fam Physician. 1986;33:143-144.
  • Janda DH, Maguire R, Mackesy D, Hawkins R, Fowler P, Boyd J. Sliding injuries in college and professional baseball—prospective study comparing standard and break-away bases. Clin J Sport Med. 1993; 3:78-81.
  • Janda DH, Viano DC, Andrzejak DV, and Hensinger RN. An analysis of preventive methods for baseball-induced chest impact injuries. Clin J Sport Med. 1992; 2:172-179.
  • Janda DH. Softball sliding injuries, Michigan, 1986-1987. MMWR. 1988;37:169-170.
  • Katzmarzyk PT, Gledhill N, Shephard RJ. The economic burden of physical inactivity in Canada. CMAJ. 2000;163:1435-1440.
  • Kottke TE, Brekke ML, Solberg LI. Making "time" for preventive services. Mayo Clin Proc. 1993; 68:785-791.
  • Lifton RJ. Nazi Doctors. New York: Basic Books; 1986.
  • Lowry R, Wechsler H, Kann L, Collins JL. Recent trends in participation in physical education among US high school students. J Sch Health. 2001;71:145-152.
  • MacKenzie TD, Bartecchi CE, Schrier RW. The human costs of tobacco use, 2. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:975-980.
  • Manson JE, Skerrett PJ, Greenland P, VanItallie TB. The escalating pandemics of obesity and sedentary lifestyle. A call to action for clinicians. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:249-258.
  • Messerli FH, Frohlich ED. High blood pressure: a side effect of drugs, poisons, and food. Arch Intern Med. 1979;139:682-687.
  • Murray TH. The ethics of drugs in sport. In: Richard H. Strauss, ed. Drugs & Performance in Sports. Philadelphia, Pa.: WB Saunders Co. 1987;11-21.
  • National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Annual Report. Atlanta, Ga: Centers for Disease Control. 2003.
  • National Institute for Sports Reform. Available at: http://www.nisr.org/top/crisis.html. Accessed June 28, 2004.
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse. Anabolic steroid abuse. Available at: www.steroidabuse.org. Accessed June 16, 2004.
  • National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Obesity Education Initiative. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/ob_gdlns.htm. Accessed June 28, 2003.
  • Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in overweight among US children and adolescents, 1999-2000. JAMA. 2002;288:1728-1732.
  • Parens E, ed. Enhancing Human Traits: Ethical and Social Implications. Washington, DC; Georgetown University Press; 1998.
  • Pate RR, Pratt M, Blair SN, et al. Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA. 1995;273:402-407.
  • Patel DR, Pratt HD, Greydanus DE. Pediatric neurodevelopment and sports participation: when are children ready to play sports? Pediatr Clin North Am. 2002; 49:505-531.
  • Pennington B. A sports turnaround: the team doctors now pay the team. The New York Times. May 18, 2004.
  • Physical activity trends—United States, 1990-1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001;50: 166-169. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5009a3.htm
    Accessed July 7, 2004.
  • Pipe A. Reviving ethics in sports: time for physicians to act. The Physician and Sportsmedicine. 1998;26:39. Available at: http://www.physsportsmed.com/issues/1998/06jun/pipe.htm Accessed June 25, 2004.
  • Rideout VJ, Foehr UG, Roberts DF, Brodie M. Kids and Media at the New Millennium: A Comprehensive National Analysis of Children's Media Use. Menlo Park, Calif: Kaiser Family Foundation; 1999.
  • Saris WHM, Blair SN, van Baak MA, et al. How much physical activity is enough to prevent unhealthy weight gain? Outcome of the IASO 1st Stock Conference and Consensus Statement. Obesity Reviews. 2003;4:101-114.
  • Sciamanna CN, Tate DF, Lang W, Wing RR. Who reports receiving advice to lose weight? Results from a multistate survey. Arch Intern Med. 2000; 160:2334-2339.
  • Shephard R. Whistler 2001: A Health Canada/ CDC conference on communicating physical activity and health messages: science into practice. Am J Prev Med. 2002;23:221-225.
  • Strauss RH, Wright HE, Finerman GAM, Catlin DH. Side effects of anabolic steroids in weight-trained men. Phys Sportsmed. 1983;12:87-96.
  • Sturm R, Wells KB. Does obesity contribute as much to morbidity as poverty or smoking? Public Health. 2001;115:229-235.
  • The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity.Rockville, Md: US Dept of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General; 2001.
  • US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 2000.
  • US Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 1996.
  • US Department of Transportation. Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration; 1997.
  • Washington RL, Bernhardt DT, Gomez J, et al for the Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness (AAP). Organized sports for children and preadolescents. Pediatrics. 2001;107:1459-1462.
  • Wee CC, McCarthy EP, Davis RB, Phillips RS. Physician counseling about exercise. JAMA. 1999;282:1583-1588.
  • World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic—Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity, 3-5 June 1997. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1998.
  • Yesalis CE, ed. Anabolic Steroids In Sport And Exercise. 2nd ed. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics; 2000.
The viewpoints expressed on this site are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the AMA.