AMA Journal of Ethics®

Illuminating the art of medicine

Journal of Ethics Header

AMA Journal of Ethics®

Illuminating the art of medicine

Virtual Mentor. August 2004, Volume 6, Number 8.

Suggested Reading and Resources

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Resources on Ethical Issues in Neurology

Further Reading

  • Albert SM, Del Bene ML, Rabkin JG, Tider T, O'Sullivan I, Mitsumoto H. The decision to hasten death in people with ALS. ALS & Other Motor Neuron Dis. 2003;4 (Supp 1):39.
  • AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Anencephalic Infants as Organ Donors (Resolutions 100 and 151, A-88). Unpublished meeting proceedings, AMA Interim Meeting, December 1988, Chicago, Ill.
  • American Academy of Neurology. Position of the American Academy of Neurology on certain aspects of the care and management of the persistent vegetative state patient: adopted by the Executive Board, American Academy of Neurology, April 21, 1988. Cincinnati, Ohio. Neurology. 1989;39:125-126.
  • American Medical Association. Guidelines for organ transplantation. Judicial Council Opinions and Reports. Chicago, Ill.: American Medical Association. 1969:11-12.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.162 Anencephalic infants as organ donors. AMA Code of Medical Ethics. Chicago: American Medical Association; 1992:16.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.162 Anencephalic infants as organ donors. AMA Code of Medical Ethics. Chicago: American Medical Association; 1994:30.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.20 Withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining medical treatment. Code of Medical Ethics. Accessed July 9, 2004.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.215 Treatment decisions for seriously ill newborns. Code of Medical Ethics. Accessed July 9, 2004.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.22 Do-not-resuscitate orders. Code of Medical Ethics. Accessed July 19, 2004.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 8.081 Surrogate decision making. Code of Medical Ethics. Accessed July 9, 2004.
  • Baily R. The battle for your brain. Reasononline. February 2003. Accessed July 26, 2004.
  • Bernat JL. The persistent vegetative state and other states of profound brain damage. In: Ethical Issues in Neurology. Newton, Mass: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1994:159.
  • Bernet JL. The boundaries of the persistent vegetative state. J Clin Ethics. 1992;3:176-180.
  • Bird TD. Outrageous fortune: the risk of suicide in genetic testing for Huntington disease. Am J Hum Genet. 1999;64:1289-1292.
  • Brock DW. Truth or consequences: the role of philosophers in policy-making. Ethics. 1987;97:786-791.
  • Caldwell JJ, Caldwell J, Smythe NR, Hall K. A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the efficacy of modafinil for sustaining the alertness and performance of aviators: a helicopter simulator study. Psychopharmacology. 2000;150:272-282.
  • Capron AM. Brain death: well settled yet still unresolved. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1244-1246.
  • Chatterjee A. Cosmetic neurology: the controversy over enhancing movement, mentation and mood. Neurology. 2004 (in press).
  • Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical Association. Anencephalic neonates as organ donors. JAMA. 1995;273:1614-1618.
  • Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. The Use of Anencephalic Neonates as Organ Donors—Reconsidered. Unpublished meeting proceedings, AMA Interim Meeting, December 1995, Chicago, Ill.
  • Cranford RE. The persistent vegetative state: the medical reality (getting the facts straight). Hastings Cent Rep. 1988;18(1):27-32.
  • Cuttler L, Silvers J, Singh J, et al. Short stature and growth hormone therapy: a national study of physician recommendation patterns. JAMA. 1996;276: 531-537.
  • Daniels N. Normal functioning and the treatment-enhancement distinction. Cambridge Quart Healthcare Ethics. 2000;9:309-322.
  • Elliot C. American bioscience meets the American dream. The American Prospect. 2003;14:38-42.
  • Elliot C. Better than Well: American Medicine Meets the American Dream. New York: WW Norton & Company. 2003.
  • [The] ethics of brain science: open your mind. The Economist. May 25, 2002; 363(8274):77-79.
  • Farah MJ, Illes J, Cook-Deegan R, et al. Neurocognitive enhancement: what we can do and what we should do. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2004;5:421-425.
  • Farah MJ, Wolpe PR. Monitoring and manipulating brain function: new neuroscience technologies and their ethical implications. Hastings Cent Rep. 2004;34(3):35-45.
  • Farah MJ. Emerging ethical issues in neuroscience. Nature Neuroscience. 2002;5:1123-1129.
  • Fogarty M. Genetic testing for people without symptoms of Alzheimer's. genetichealth.com. February 23, 2001. Accessed July 13, 2004.
  • Fukayama F. Our Posthuman Future. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2002.
  • Ganzini L, Block S. Physician-assisted suicide: a last resort? N Engl J Med.
    2002;346:1663-1665.
  • Ganzini L, Johnston WS, McFarland BH, Tolle SW, Lee MA. Attitudes of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their caregivers toward physician-assisted suicide. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:967-973.
  • Ganzini L, Johnston WS, Silveira MJ. The final month of life in patients with ALS. Neurology. 2202:59:428-431.
  • Ganzini L, Silveira MJ, Johnston WS. Predictors and correlates of interest in assisted suicide in the final month of life among ALS patients in Oregon and Washington. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2002;24:312-317.
  • George M. Stimulating the brain. Scientific American. 2003;289:67-77.
  • Giacino JT, Ashwal S, Childs N, et al. The minimally conscious state: definition and diagnostic criteria. Neurology. 2002;58:349-353.
  • Groopman J. Eyes wide open. The New Yorker. December 3, 2001. 52-57.
  • Hall S. The quest for a smart pill. Scientific American. 2003;289:54-65.
  • Harris Interactive, Inc. The impact of Parkinson's disease on quality of life. Online Survey. 2003.
  • Jennett B, Plum F. Persistent vegetative state after brain damage: a syndrome in search of a name. Lancet. 1972;1:734-737.
  • Jennett B. The Vegetative State: Medical Facts, Ethical and Legal Dilemmas. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2002.
  • Kass L. The pursuit of biohappiness. Washington Post. October 16, 2003: A25.
  • Langreth R. Viagra for the brain. Forbes. February 4, 2002: 46-52.
  • Law v Camp 116 F. Supp. 2d 295.
  • Levy DE, Sidtis JJ, Rottenberg DA, et al. Differences in cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization in vegetative versus locked-in patients. Ann Neurol 1987;22:673-682.
  • Lock M. Twice Dead: Organ Transplants and the Reinvention of Death. Berkeley: The University of California Press; 2002:89-115.
  • Marcus S. Neuroethics: Mapping the Field. New York: Dana Press; 2002.
  • Multi-Society Task Force on the Persistent Vegetative State. Medical aspects of the persistent vegetative state, Part I. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:1499-1508.
  • Multi-Society Task Force on the Persistent Vegetative State. Medical aspects of the persistent vegetative state, Part II. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:1572-1579.
  • Myers AJ, Goate AM. The genetics of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Curr Opin Oncol. 2001;14:433-440.
  • National Human Genome Research Institute. Genetic discrimination in health insurance or employment. Accessed July 27, 2004.
  • National Institute on Aging/Alzheimer's Association Working Group. Apolipoprotein E genotyping in Alzheimer's disease. Lancet. 1996;347:1091-1095.
  • Nortvedt M, Riise T. The use of quality of life measures in multiple sclerosis research. Multiple Sclerosis. 2003;9:63-72.
  • Picard A. Developing Alzheimer's linked to lifestyle more than genes.Globe and Mail. July 22, 2004. Available at: Accessed July 29, 2004.
  • Plotz D. The ethics of enhancement. Slate. March 12, 2003. Accessed July 27, 2004.
  • Post SG, Whitehouse PJ, Binstock RH, et al. The clinical introduction of genetic testing for Alzheimer disease. JAMA. 1997;277:832-836.
  • President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Deciding to Forgo Life-sustaining Treatment: A Report on the Ethical, Medical, and Legal Issues in Treatment Decisions. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1983:171-192.
  • President's Commission on the Uniform Determination of Death. Defining Death: Medical, Ethical and Legal Issues in the Determination of Death. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office;1981.
  • President's Council on Bioethics. Beyond Therapy: Biotechnology and the Pursuit of Happiness. Washington, DC; President's Council on Bioethics. 2003. Accessed July 27, 2004.
  • Roberts JS, Barber M, Brown TM, et al. Who seeks genetic susceptibility testing for Alzheimer's disease? Findings from a multisite, randomized clinical trial. Genet Med. 2004;6:197-203.
  • Rose S. Smart drugs: do they work, will they be legal? Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2002;3:975-979.
  • Schneider C. The Practice of Autonomy: Patients, Doctors and Medical Decisions. New York: Oxford Press; 1998.
  • Schwartz B. The Paradox of Choice: Why Less Is More. New York: Ecco; 2004.
  • Shewmon DA. Chronic "brain death": meta-analysis and conceptual consequences. Neurology. 1998;51:1538-1545.
  • Society for Neuroscience. Huntington's disease genetics. Accessed July 27, 2004.
  • Solomon P, Adams F, Silver A, Zimmer J, DeVeaux R. Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288:835-840.
  • Truog RD, Robinson WM. Role of brain death and the dead-donor rule in the ethics of organ transplantation. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:2391-2396.
  • Truog RD. Is it time to abandon brain death? Hastings Cent Rep. 1997;27(1):29-37.
  • US Senate. S.1053: Genetic information nondiscrimination act of 2003. Accessed July 26, 2004.
  • Wexler N. Reading genes for disease, Part 3: Huntington's. National Public Radio. Accessed May 26, 2004.
  • Whitehouse P, Juengst E, Mehlman M, Murray T. Enhancing cognition in the intellectually intact. Hastings Cent Rep. 1997;27(3):14-22.
  • Wijdicks EFM. The diagnosis of brain death. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1215-1221.
  • Wolpe P. Treatment, enhancement, and the ethics of neurotherapeutics. Brain Cogn. 2002;50:387-395.
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