AMA Journal of Ethics

Formerly Virtual Mentor

Illuminating the art of medicine

Journal of Ethics Header

AMA Journal of Ethics

Formerly Virtual Mentor

Illuminating the art of medicine

Virtual Mentor. September 2004, Volume 6, Number 9.

Suggested Reading and Resources

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Resources on Medicine and Human Rights

Further Reading

  • Adams KE. Moral diversity among physicians and conscientious refusal of care in the provision of abortion services. J Am Med Women's Assoc. 2003;58:223-226.
  • AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Unpublished minutes. AMA Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL; June 2002.
  • American College of Nurse Midwives. Barriers to Nurse-midwifery Practice. Accessed August 18, 2004.
  • American College of Nurse Midwives. CNM-attended Births Still on the Rise! Accessed August 18, 2004.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 9.065 Caring for the poor. Code of Medical Ethics Current Opinions.. Accessed July 5, 2004.
  • American Medical Association. Declaration of Professional Responsibility: Medicine's Social Contract with Humanity. Accessed August 25, 2004.
  • American Medical Association. Guidelines to prevent malevolent use of biomedical research. Accessed August 19, 2004.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.06 Capital punishment. Code of Medical Ethics Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:18-20.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.065 Court-initiated medical treatments in criminal cases. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:24.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.067 Torture. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press; 2004:24-25.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.07 Clinical investigation. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:25-27.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.071 Subject selection for clinical trials. Code of Medical Ethics,Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:28-29.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.075 The use of placebo controls in clinical trials. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:29-30.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.076 Surgical "placebo" controls. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:30-31.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.077 Ethical considerations in international research. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:31-32.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.079 Safeguards in the use of DNA databanks in genomic research. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:32-33.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.10 Fetal research guidelines. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:37-38.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.13 Genetic engineering. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:42.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.146 Cloning-for-biomedical-research. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:53-54.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.169 Ethical implications of xenotransplantation. Code of Medical Ethics: Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2005:65-66.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 8.031 Conflicts of interest: biomedical research. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:178-179.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 8.0315 Managing conflicts of interest in the conduct of clinical trials. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:180-181.
  • American Medical Association. Principles of medical ethics, Principle I. Accessed August 27, 2004.
  • American Public Health Association. Position Paper. Supporting access to midwifery services in the United States. Am J Publ Health. 2001;91:482-485.
  • American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Code of Ethics, 1998. Accessed August 22, 2004.
  • American Society for Microbiology. Code of Ethics, 2000. Accessed August 22, 2004.
  • Amnesty International. A Prescription for Change: Health Professionals and the Exposure of Human Rights Violations. AI Index ACT/75/01/96. London; 1996. Accessed July 30, 2004.
  • Amnesty International. Sudan: Human Rights Concerns. Accessed August 30, 2004
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  • Baiev K. The Oath: A Surgeon Under Fire. New York: Walker & Co.; 2003.
  • Basoghu M. ed. Torture and Its Consequences: Current Treatment Approaches. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
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  • Bloch S, Reddaway P. Soviet Psychiatric Abuse: The Shadow over World Psychiatry. London: Victor Gollancz; 1984.
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  • British Medical Association. Medicine Betrayed: The Participation of Doctors in Human Rights Abuses. London: Zed Books; 1992.
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  • Catholic Charities.
  • Center for Victims of Torture. Accessed July 23, 2004.
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  • Committee on Human Rights. Science and Human Rights. Washington, DC: National Academy of Science; 1988:23-25.
  • Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction. 1972. Accessed January 15, 2004.
  • Council of Europe. European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Accessed August 31, 2004.
  • Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, Court-initiated medical treatments in criminal cases. Unpublished report. Chicago: American Medical Association; June 1998.
  • Donohoe MT. Teen pregnancy: a call for sound science and public policy. Z Magazine. 2003;16:14-16. Accessed August 10, 2004.
  • Dower C, Miller J, O'Neil E. Taskforce on Midwifery. Charting a Course for the 21st Century: the Future of Midwifery. San Francisco: Pew Health Professions Commission and the UCSF Center for Health Professions; 1999.
  • Drazen JM, Greene MF, Wood AJJ. The FDA, politics, and Plan B. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1561-1562.
  • Elsner A. Gates of Injustice: The Crisis in America's Prisons. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall; 2004.
  • Farmer P. Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor. University of California Press; April 2003.
  • Farmer PE, Furin JJ, Katz JT. Global health equity. Lancet. 2004; 363(9423):1832.
  • Fimate, L. Medical ethics and torture. Journal of Indian Medical Association. 1999;97:453-456.
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  • Ford v Wainwright, 477 US. 399.
  • Freedman LP, Wirth M, Waldman R, Chowdhury M, Rosenfield A. Millennium Development Project Task Force 4 Background Paper on Child Health and Maternal Health. Accessed August 18, 2004.
  • Freedman LP. Human rights and women's health. In: Goldman M, Hatch M, eds. Women and Health. New York: Academic Press; 2000.
  • Freedman LP. Shifting visions: "delegation" policies and the building of a "rights-based" approach to maternal mortality. J Am Med Women Assoc. 2002;54(3):154-158.
  • Gender Asylum. Accessed Aug. 8 2004.
  • Geneva Convention. Convention (III) Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949. Accessed August 31, 2004.
  • Gifford S. The meaning of lumps: a case study of the ambiguities of risk. In: James C, Stall R, Gifford S, eds. Anthropology and Epidemiology: Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Health and Disease. Dordrecht: D Reidel; 1986.
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  • Harris S. Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-1945, and the American Cover-Up. New York: Routledge; 2002.
  • Harris v McRae, 448 US 297 (1980).
  • Heggenhougen HK. The epidemiology of functional apartheid and human rights abuses. Social Science and Medicine. 1995;40:281-84.
  • Iacopino V, Allden K, Keller A. Examining Asylum Seekers: A Health Professional's Guide to Medical and Psychological Evaluations of Torture. Boston: Physicians for Human Rights; 2001.
  • Iacopino V, Özkalipçi Ö, Schlar C, et al. Manual on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment ("Istanbul Protocol"). Geneva, Switzerland: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights; 2001. UN publication HR/P/PT/8. Accessed July 23, 2004.
  • Iacopino V, Peel M, eds. The Medical Documentation of Torture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2002.
  • Iacopino V. Health professionals cannot be silent witnesses. West J Med. 2000;172:304.
  • Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 U.S.C. § 1186b (2002).
  • Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 USC §1101(a)(42)(A) Accessed Aug. 8, 2004.
  • Institute of Medicine. Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations (2004). Washington, DC. The National Academies Press. Accessed August 27, 2004.
  • International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims. Accessed July 20, 2004.
  • International Council for the Rehabilitation of Torture Victims. Global Directory of Rehabilitation Centres and Programmes. Accessed July 23, 2004.
  • Jewish Relief Services.
  • Kowalewski M, Jahn A. Health professionals for maternity services: experiences on covering the population with quality maternity care. In: De Brouwere V, Van Lerberghe V, eds. Safe Motherhood Strategies: a Review of the Evidence. Antwerp: ITG Press; 2001.
  • Kupers TA. The Mental Health Crisis Behind Bars and What We Must Do About It. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 1999.
  • Lewis NA, Schmitt E. Lawyers decided ban on torture didn't bind Bush. New York Times. June 8, 2004: A1, A10.
  • Lifton RJ. Doctors and torture. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:415-416.
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  • Marchione M. Doctors don't leave ethics behind when they join the military, experts say. Newsday. August 21, 2004. Accessed August 31, 2004.
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  • Miles SH. Abu Ghraib: its legacy for military medicine. Lancet. 2004;364:725-729.
  • NARAL web site Accessed July 27, 2004.
  • National Research Council (USA). Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism: Confronting the Dual Use Dilemma. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2003.
  • New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Summary of Vital Statistics, 1996-2002.
  • Ochberg F. Understanding Spousal Abuse. Accessed August 4, 2004.
  • Officials: alleged al Qaeda paymaster in custody. CNN. March 4, 2003. Accessed July 20, 2004.
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  • Peel M, Iacopino V. The Medical Documentation of Torture. San Francisco, Calif: Greenwich Medical Media Ltd; 2002.
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  • Petition for writ of mandamus. Filed in the case of Swift v Rumsfeld (WD Wash 2004) [April 6, 2004].
  • Physicians for Human Rights Asylum Network. Accessed July 23, 2004.
  • Physicians for Human Rights Web site. Accessed August 11, 2004.
  • Physicians for Human Rights. Bulgarian and Palestinian Health Professionals in Libya Sentenced to Death by Firing Squad. Accessed July 20, 2004.
  • Physicians for Human Rights. Dr. Thys Van Mollendorff—Charges Dropped!
  • Physicians for Human Rights. Research & Investigations. Torture in Turkey and Its Unwilling Accomplices. Accessed July 20, 2004.
  • Physicians for Human Rights. Update: Six Cuban Physicians Sentenced from 13 to 25 years. Accessed July 20, 2004.
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  • Rassmussen, OV. Medical aspects of torture. Dan Med Bull. 1990;37(1):1-88.
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  • Rubenstein LS. The medical community's response torture. Lancet. 2003;361:1556.
  • Shanahan MA, Metheny WP, Star J, Peipert JF. Induced abortion: physician training and practice patterns. J Reprod Med. 1999;44:428-32.
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