The difficulty of performing pericardiocentesis suggests that the opportunity for Lydia or Carl to learn by attempting the procedure on the recently deceased should be pursued. Accordingly, option B (in which the resident seeks Mrs. Milos's son's permission for the procedure) is the preferable option. Nonetheless, it is not a mandate of the Code for students to practice procedures on the recently deceased, so option C is an acceptable alternative.
Option A—performing pericardiocentesis without permission—should be avoided because it may violate the wishes of both Mrs. Milos and her son regarding the treatment of her body after death. Respect for patient and family preferences, even for procedures on the newly deceased, requires that permission be obtained. Option D should also be avoided because medical students should not be assigned the task of informing a patient's family members of his or her death.
Preferable: Option B
Acceptable: Option C
Avoid: Options A and D