Neuropsychology considers the brain to be a critical substrate of the mind. A patient with dementia, for example, might fear the loss of self and experience deep-seated anxiety. How should clinicians respond when physical and cognitive symptoms of organic brain disease are accompanied by complex and intense emotional experiences of illness? Neuropsychology also poses ethical questions that are not necessarily generated by illness. For example, memory manipulation has risks and benefits that need consideration from ethical and clinical, as well as social and cultural, perspectives.